Beggar by the Gate


Acts 3:1-3

After Pentecost, all the believers met daily at the Temple for worship and fellowship. The Church Age had begun, but they had not abandoned their Jewish customs. They looked upon themselves not as former Jews, but as the only Jews true to their heritage, for they alone had accepted Jesus, the Jewish Messiah.

On a certain day Peter and John went up to the Temple at the ninth hour (about three o'clock in the afternoon). This was one of the times during the day when the devout flocked to the Temple. They had been taught that to raise corporate prayer was especially appropriate early in the morning, at the time of the morning sacrifice, and again at the ninth hour, the time of the evening sacrifice.1

Although Peter and John’s purpose was to join others in prayer, they were also looking for opportunities to spread the fame of Jesus. They noticed a beggar on their way in. He was sitting near the gate called Beautiful and asking people to give him alms (money). Passers-by took pity on him because they could see he was lame and unable to support himself by regular work.


Delving Deeper


Which gate is intended

No other ancient Jewish source places in the Temple a gate called Beautiful, but most scholars have no doubt that Luke is using a common name for the gate widely considered as the most magnificent. This was the Nicanor Gate, the eastern entrance from the Court of Gentiles into the Court of the Women.2 Overlaid with Corinthian bronze richly ornamented, each of its doors was so heavy that twenty men were needed to open or close it.3 Josephus, presumably speaking of the same gate, rated it as even more valuable than other gates "plated with silver and set in gold."4

In those days someone with a severe disability could not obtain help from the government, because there were no welfare programs. Nor could he count on the support of his own relatives, because most families were very poor. They expected every adult member to bring in money, even if the only way was by begging. If a man had to beg because he was disabled, his family might leave him every day in a good place for attracting sympathy. The entrance to the Temple was especially good because people going to worship God were more likely to remember His many commands to help the poor. For example, He said, "And if thy brother be waxen poor, and fallen in decay with thee; then thou shalt relieve him" (Lev. 25:35).


Delving Deeper


Beggars at the Temple

The beggar that Peter and John encountered was not an isolated case. Beggars were numerous at the Temple, where they clustered especially at the inner and outer gates bordering the Court of the Gentiles.5 It was not uncommon for men to fake handicaps so that they could undertake begging as a money-making scheme.6

Beggars who were blind or fully lame were subject to certain restrictions, based on the cryptic saying added to the account of David’s conquest of Jerusalem, "The blind and the lame shall not come into the house" (2 Sam. 5:8). The true meaning is much disputed, but the Pharisees understood it to set God’s house off limits to all who were so disabled that they needed to be carried or guided. They were allowed access to the Court of the Gentiles, but excluded from the inner courts.7 The lame beggar that Peter and John met had gone as far inward as he dared, for he sat just outside the Court of the Women.


Delving Still Deeper


What the saying really meant

When David and his men threatened to take Jerusalem from the Jebusites, the defenders taunted him by saying that even the blind and the lame could defend it. David then challenged his men, in a literal translation, "Anyone who smites the Jebusite, let him go by the water-shaft and (take) the lame and the blind, the hated of the soul of David; therefore they say, the blind and the lame shall not enter into the house" (2 Sam. 5:8).8

In David’s words, we see him putting a sarcastic twist on what the defenders said earlier. He took them as referring to themselves as the blind and the lame. The Jebusites were the ones David hated, and they were the ones that the familiar adage meant to exclude from the Temple. In this respect they suffered the same judgment as the Moabites and Ammonites (Deut. 23:3)—other deeply corrupt nations in the region who had stood in the way of God’s people occupying their rightful heritage.

The same God who taught Job that a righteous man became eyes for the blind and feet for the lame to help them reach wherever they needed to go (Job 29:15) and who cursed any man that led the blind out of the way (Deut. 27:18) would never have barred the blind and lame from going to the best place, God’s house. Eunuchs were excluded (Deut. 23:1) solely because God wished to set before the nation a strong deterrent from a despicable heathen practice.

The lame man that Peter and John saw near the gate was laid there "daily." Later, everyone in the Temple recognized him as "he which sat for alms at the Beautiful gate" (v. 10). Thus, it is likely that the Jews had seen him at the same spot for years.


Better than Money


Acts 3:4-6

When Peter and John passed by, the beggar called out to them and asked for alms. Moved by the Holy Spirit, Peter commanded the man to look at them. The man looked, thinking he might receive a generous gift of money. But what Peter did was altogether surprising. He said, "Silver and gold have I none; but such as I have give I thee: In the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth rise up and walk."


Pondering a Question


How did Peter's conduct on this occasion serve as an example for us?

Firsts in the Bible are often significant. Peter's reply to the beggar is the first recorded instance of personal soulwinning during the Church Age. The incident vividly illustrates how we, as servants of God, should interact with the lost. The essence of proper outreach is not to offer material assistance, along the lines of the social gospel. Also, it is not to offer counseling or friendship. Charity and friendship are appropriate tools for forming relationships that will allow witness, but they do not fulfill our duty. To witness is our duty, and the essence of witness is to offer Jesus Christ.

Notice that Peter delayed neither in identifying himself as a Christian nor in introducing Jesus Christ to the conversation. Likewise, we should always declare who we are and who we represent as soon as possible. Not that we should be obnoxious. We must avoid posing as holier-than-thou, and we must refrain from pressing people for decisions that they are not ready to make. Still, the longer we wait before witnessing, the more we feed our natural shyness. Speaking out becomes harder rather than easier. And the longer we wait, the more we are tempted to compromise our testimony. In the effort to be friendly with sinners, we can be easily drawn into talk that is not really appropriate for a Christian.


Getting Practical


Wants vs. needs

This incident provides perhaps the best example in Scripture of the difference between the two. What the beggar wanted was money, but what he needed was Jesus Christ. The little money he obtained by begging brought very little benefit. With his few paltry coins he probably bought food to prolong his miserable life another day. But Peter offered him a source of benefits meeting every need. Through faith in Jesus Christ the beggar could be healed and could enjoy the dignity in earning his own bread. But also, besides gaining a worthwhile life in this world, he could gain life forever.


Getting Practical


Peter's lack of money

Most devout Jews took an offering with them when they went to the Temple, yet Peter’s purse was empty, even though he was formerly a successful businessman in the fishing industry. His poverty may have been the result of setting an example for others when the early church decided to have "all things common" (Acts 2:44).

Anyone engaged in full-time Christian service follows in Peter's footsteps. Like him, few Christian workers are able to carry around a store of cash. But like him, they who serve the Lord possess something far more valuable than money—a relationship with Jesus Christ that they can share with others. One benefit for all who know Him is the prospect that someday they will leave behind the privations of life here and move upward to inherit the riches of heaven.

Peter's command to rise up and walk tested the beggar's faith. Before performing a miracle to meet a human need, Jesus always required faith either in the needy person or in someone else concerned about him. Once, when a father implored Jesus to deliver his son from an unclean spirit, "Jesus said unto him, If thou canst believe, all things are possible to him that believeth" (Mark 9:23).

No doubt the lame man had heard of Jesus and knew He was a miracle worker. During one of His last visits to Jerusalem, Jesus had healed a man blind from birth, and the miracle was a sensation (John 9). News of it would surely have reached a lame beggar in the Temple. Perhaps at night he went to sleep wishing he were the one that Jesus had found and healed. Perhaps the seeds of faith had already been planted in his heart.


The Beggar's Response


Acts 3:7-10

Now the beggar heard a confident voice command him on Jesus' authority to get up and walk. To encourage the man in his effort to obey, Peter "took him by the right hand, and lifted him up." The man's heart must have flooded with hope, and he must have strained every muscle and summoned every ounce of strength to cooperate. But as soon as faith took root in his heart, no great effort was required. He rose as easily as any agile youth. Yet he was so eager to obey that he used great effort anyway, and the result was that he actually leaped to his feet.

Notice that several miracles were done simultaneously. First, the physical defect responsible for his affliction had to be repaired. Second, all the muscles and other tissues that had wasted away through disuse had to be rebuilt. Yet that was not all. Being lame "from his mother's womb" (Acts 3:2), he had never learned how to walk. Thus, his nervous system had to be enlarged with new intercellular connections and its memory banks reprogrammed so that he could control his restored legs and walk smoothly.

The work of healing was perfect. After leaping up, the man walked with the apostles into the Temple. But he did not quietly trudge along beside them. He was so overjoyed at being healed that he tried out different ways of using his legs. Everyone saw him "walking, and leaping, and praising God." Whether he also ran and skipped, we do not know, but it is possible.

He did not fail to be grateful. Over and over again he praised God for His goodness. Put yourself in his place. He was a man who had always envied the ability of others to do simple things beyond his power, like carrying a child or climbing to a housetop to watch the sunset. Suddenly, only minutes removed from a life of despair, he was a man like other men. Indeed, because God healed him, his legs must have been unusually fit and strong.


Excitement in the Temple


Acts 3:11-15

News of the miracle raced throughout the Temple compound. Some heard what had happened. Others were only aware of a general excitement drawing people toward the area known as Solomon's Porch. It was a triple colonnade running along the Eastern wall of the Temple and framing the Outer Court, known as the Court of the Gentiles.9 Everyone rushed there and found the healed man clinging to Peter and John. Here again is evidence of his gratitude. He could not stop hugging them for giving him a normal life.

He was far more deserving than some others who received Jesus' help. After Jesus healed ten lepers, nine hurried away to be pronounced clean and only one, a Samaritan, turned back to thank the healer. Jesus said, "There are not found that returned to give glory to God, save this stranger" (Luke 17:18). His comment was meant to rebuke those who think they are close to God, but make little effort to thank Him for His blessings.


Getting Practical


Striving for a thankful heart

Are you thankful? You may or may not be disabled like the lame man. If you are not, you can be thankful that God has given you a strong body. If you are disabled, you can be thankful that through the indwelling Spirit of God, you can have gladness even in your weakness. Whether you are strong or weak, life offers much to enjoy and many ways to serve God, and beyond the grave lies heaven.

The gathering crowd must have gazed with awe at Peter and John, as if they gave the two apostles credit for the miracle, for when Peter began to speak, he deflected all praise from themselves. He denied they had any power to perform miracles, or any great holiness requiring God to do miracles at their bidding.

To explain how the man had been healed, Peter introduced the name of Jesus. This Jesus was a man the Jews treated shamefully. They handed Him over to Pilate for trial, but did not accept Pilate's verdict that He was innocent of any fault. They begged Pilate to release a murderer instead. So deep was their hatred of Jesus that they coerced Pilate to crucify Him. Peter summarized his case against the Jews by bluntly stating that they killed Jesus.


Pondering a Question


Who was responsible for the death of Christ?

Some people accuse Christians of antisemitism. The proof, they say, is that we portray Jews as Christ-killers. It is true that over the long course of history, some who call themselves Christian have hated the Jews. Both the medieval Catholic church and the Russian Orthodox church were at times so intolerant of the Jews that they sanctioned their persecution, including terrible pogroms that slaughtered many. Some of the state churches emerging from the Reformation were also tainted with antisemitism. Even Luther viewed with contempt those Jews who refused to be converted. Although he did not call for them to be killed, he wanted them deported to Palestine.10 But in the last two centuries, Christians with testimonies of salvation through faith in Christ, especially those adhering to a dispensational view of prophecy (which we will soon define), have been very sympathetic to the Jews. Since formation of the state of Israel in 1948, they have been its chief supporters outside the Jewish community.

Modern evangelical Christians reject antisemitism for the three reasons.

  1. We understand that we have accepted a Jew, Jesus of Nazareth, as our Lord and Master.
  2. We are proud of our descent from the early church, whose first leaders and members were all Jews.
  3. As dispensationalists, we recognize that Jews still have a special place in God’s program yet to be fulfilled. We believe in the literal Millennial reign of Christ. After He returns, He will establish His kingdom in this present world and reign for a thousand years. During that period he will acknowledge the Jews as His chosen people and grant them preeminence among the nations.

We do not deny that some Jews in Jesus’ day—specifically, the Jewish leaders and their supporters—conspired to kill Him. But we do not assign them the entire blame. We acknowledge that a gentile, the Roman governor Pilate, authorized the Crucifixion. Also, we believe that all men regardless of race are Christ-killers, for two reasons.

  1. Apart from the grace of God, any of us would have acted exactly as the Jewish leaders did. Rather than humble ourselves before Jesus, we would have rejected Him.
  2. Jesus died only because He chose to pay the penalty for our sins. Every sinner is therefore responsible for His death. Since every man is a sinner, the guilt for killing Christ falls upon all mankind, including you and me.

Who was this Jesus who died at the hands of Peter’s hearers? Rather than identify Him first as the Christ—that is, as the human Messiah awaited by the Jews—Peter accorded to Him a string of august titles. He was "the Holy One and the Just," "the Prince of life," and the "Son" of God. These descriptions of His high standing should have made it obvious that Jesus was no less than divine. Only a divine person could be morally perfect. Only a divine person could be the author of life. And only a divine person could be God’s own Son.


Delving Still Deeper


Peter's Christology

Peter’s presentation of the gospel on this occasion shows—contrary to the claim of some skeptics—that he already had a fully developed Christology. The doctrine of Jesus’ deity did not evolve gradually as the church refined its beliefs to win wider acceptance. No, already at Pentecost the church had a firm and precise conception of who Jesus was—that He was both fully man and fully God.

Plea to Repent


Acts 3:16-19a

In rebuke of the Jews who killed Jesus, Peter proclaimed that God had raised Him from the dead and glorified Him, and the lame man had been healed by putting faith in His name.

Peter then softened his appeal by conceding that the Jews had killed Jesus out of ignorance. Yet he immediately added that Jesus fulfilled the prophecies of the Old Testament. He was implying that their ignorance was inexcusable. As students of the Scriptures, they should have known that Christ would suffer and die for the sins of the world.

Their rejection of the divine Savior left them no claim on God's mercy. Yet God was merciful anyway and offered them forgiveness if they would only "repent" and "be converted." The terms describe a change in direction. The Jews needed to leave the path of rebellion against God and turn into the path of faith and obedience. Peter assured them that God would respond by blotting out their sins.


Future Blessings


Acts 3:19b-21

His plea to repent was directed at each individual standing in the crowd. Yet it was also directed at the whole nation of the Jews, and it was mainly the whole nation that he addressed in his next words.

He promised that if the Jews would repent and follow Christ, they would share in all the blessings that God planned for the church. Peter divided the future of the church into two periods and named them by referring to the special blessings that each would bring. First would come Times of Refreshing. Then would come Times of Restitution (that is, restoration). He placed between these two times a single event: the return of Christ. Basically, he summarized the future history of planet earth.

In the Greek phrase translated "times of refreshing," the word "refreshing" is anapsuxis, which suggests coolness, like rain on a hot day, or a cup of water after hard work.11 It can be translated "revival."12 The word "times" is kairos, which often signifies a period marked by events with certain characteristics.13


Pondering a Question


What are the Times of Refreshing?

The expression "times of refreshing" looks forward to those times in church history when God would do a great work of reviving His people and building His church. The rapid expansion of the early church was such a time. So was the Reformation in the sixteenth century, the Great Awakening in the eighteenth century, and the explosion of worldwide missions in the nineteenth century.


Getting Practical


Praying for revival

It has been over a century since we have seen anything like a time of refreshing. The last revival with an impact around the world fell in the period 1904-1906.14 We all should pray that God will grant us yet another refreshing time before Christ returns. The secret to effective prayer for revival is to welcome and nurture and achieve revival in ourselves.

Yet the world today is in such a sorry state, displaying exactly the kind of apostasy that prophecy says would prevail in the Last Days (2 Tim. 3:1–5, 13; 2:3–4; 2 Pet. 3:3–6), that there may not be another revival until after the Rapture.

Continuing, Peter said that God would send Jesus Christ. He was speaking of Christ's second coming, the watershed event that will divide the sadness of history past from the glory of history future.

He said, moreover, that Christ’s descent from heaven will usher in "times of restitution." In the Greek phrase, the word "restitution" is apokatastasis, which suggests regeneration, or restoration to a proper state.15 The word "times" is chronos, which signifies a time interval, whether long or short.16


Pondering a Question


Why is the period after Christ returns called Times of Restitution?

There will be a fourfold restitution after Christ returns.

  1. Jewish occupancy of Palestine. Christ will gather all the Jews around the world to their homeland, Palestine. "And it shall come to pass in that day, that the Lord shall set his hand again the second time to recover the remnant of his people, which shall be left, from Assyria, and from Egypt, and from Pathros, and from Cush, and from Elam, and from Shinar, and from Hamath, and from the islands of the sea. And he shall set up an ensign for the nations, and shall assemble the outcasts of Israel, and gather together the dispersed of Judah from the four corners of the earth" (Isa. 11:11-12; see also Ezek. 39:25-28).
  2. The Davidic dynasty. The last Jewish king in the line of David was deposed in 586 BC, when the Babylonians destroyed Jerusalem and took the Jews into captivity.17 Since then, as God predicted through the prophet Daniel, they have remained under gentile domination, even during the brief period (142 BC to 63 BC) when Judea was an independent state under its own kings, all belonging to the Hasmonean House.18 The Jews will never again have a king of their own until Christ, the rightful heir of David, crushes His enemies and sets up His kingdom over the earth (Ps. 2:6-12). This kingdom will last a thousand years, a period known as the Millennium.
  3. The preeminence of the Jews. The Jews are now removed from God's favor and blessing because they are living in unbelief. But when they see Christ at His return, they will grieve that they spurned Him at His first coming, and they will gladly embrace Him as their king. He will then restore them to a special place in the world. As God's chosen people, they will be chief among the nations (Isa. 60:9-12; Ezek. 37:28).
  4. The world as an enjoyable place to dwell. The horrendous disasters of the Tribulation will leave the earth in ruins. Besides many other plagues, including widespread destruction of plants and wildlife (Rev. 8:7–12) and universal degradation of the earth’s environment (Rev. 3, 8), the last plague will level mountains and swamp islands (Rev. 16:17–21). But when Christ ascends His throne, He will quickly reverse all the devastation and refurnish the world as a pleasant place to live (Isa. 4:2–6; 29:17–20; 41:14–20; 51:3).

Millennial Reign


Acts 3:22-23

In his sermon at Pentecost, Peter showed that both the Resurrection and the Ascension had been foreordained by God and prophesied in His Word. Now he showed that the future reign of Christ will be another fulfillment of prophecy. He quoted Deuteronomy 18:18-19: "For Moses truly said unto the fathers, A prophet shall the Lord your God raise up unto you of your brethren, like unto me; him shall ye hear in all things whatsoever he shall say unto you. And it shall come to pass, that every soul, which will not hear that prophet, shall be destroyed from among the people."

When John the Baptist started his ministry, the religious leaders asked him, "Why baptizest thou then, if thou be not that Christ, nor Elias, neither that prophet?" (John 1:25). They expected three different figures to appear in the end time: Christ, Elijah, and the prophet mentioned by Moses. Thus, when preaching in Solomon's Porch, Peter enlightened the Jews as to the true significance of Moses' prophecy. The prophet whom Moses foresaw was the same person as Christ.


Pondering a Question


What are the three offices of Christ?

God conferred upon Christ the offices of prophet, priest, and king. As a prophet "like unto" Moses (Deut. 18:18), He proclaimed the will of God to the Jewish people. As a "priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek" (Ps. 110:4), He offered His own body as a sacrifice for sins. As a king in the line of David (Ps. 89:3–4; Isa. 11:1–5; Jer. 33:15–17), He rules now in the hearts of believers, and after He returns, He will rule the whole world.

Moses warned that whoever fails to hear the prophet will be destroyed. Thus, Peter treats the prophecy as referring to the Millennial kingdom, when no opposition to Christ will be tolerated. Indeed, He will "rule them with a rod of iron" (Rev. 2:27). Does this impress you as too severe? Human beings prefer leaders who wink at sin, but Christ will give it no foothold in His kingdom. Why? Because sin is a way of hurting others as well as oneself. No one during the Millennium will have the freedom to cause hurt.


Other Prophets


Acts 3:24

Moses was not alone in speaking of the blessed time when the whole world will pay homage to a Jewish king. Glimpses of this time abound in Old Testament prophecy. Peter said that Samuel "foretold of these days." Samuel was regarded by the Jews as the first prophet. Nowhere in the recorded words of Samuel do we find a clear reference to the Messiah. But his rebuke of King Saul on one occasion is rich with prophetic meaning. He said, "Thou hast done foolishly: thou hast not kept the commandment of the LORD thy God, which he commanded thee: for now would the LORD have established thy kingdom upon Israel for ever. But now thy kingdom shall not continue: the LORD hath sought him a man after his own heart, and the LORD hath commanded him to be captain over his people" (1 Sam. 13:13-14). Samuel was implying that whereas the throne of Saul would be cut off, the throne of David, the man after God's own heart, would continue forever. The prophecy will be fulfilled when Christ, the Son of David, takes power over the earth and all creation.


First to the Jews


Acts 3:25-26

Peter concluded his appeal to the Jews by reminding them that they were special in God's eyes. Though He loved all men, He especially loved the Jews for three reasons:

1) They bore His name, for they were known as the people of God.

2) They were descended from the prophets, God's beloved messengers of truth.

3) They were heirs of the covenant that God made with Abraham. In that covenant God declared He would take Israel's side against all her enemies. "That in blessing I will bless thee, and in multiplying I will multiply thy seed as the stars of the heaven, and as the sand which is upon the sea shore; and thy seed shall possess the gate of his enemies; And in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed; because thou hast obeyed my voice" (Gen. 22:17-18).


Delving Deeper


The standing of Jews today

Has this promise ever been revoked? No. Its reaffirmation by Peter just days after Pentecost meant that it would remain in force throughout the Church Age. Even today, in keeping with His Word to Abraham, God sides with the Jews against all their enemies.

The key provision of this covenant was, "And in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed" (Gen. 22:18). The promised seed (masculine singular in the Hebrew19) was Jesus Christ, and the first nation that God chose to bless through Christ was the Jews. It was to the Jews that Christ devoted His ministry on earth. He walked in the midst of no other nation. It was to the Jews that the gospel was offered first, in obedience to Christ's command that the apostles should be witnesses first in Jerusalem and Judea.


Getting Practical


God's motivation

Peter was declaring God's love for Israel in the hope that they would respond with love. Likewise in the gospel preached everywhere in the world, God declares His love for all men. "For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life" (John 3:16). God created us so that He might give and receive love. Let us therefore love Him as we ought.

Footnotes

  1. Emil Schürer, A History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1891), 2.1.284–291; Jos. Ant. 14.4.3.
  2. F. F. Bruce, The Acts of the Apostles: The Greek Text with Introduction and Commentary, 3rd ed. (Grand Rapids, Mich.: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1990), 136; Richard N. Longenecker, The Acts of the Apostles, in The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, vol. 9 (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan Publishing House, 1981), 294; Thomas Walker, Acts of the Apostles (Chicago: Moody Press, 1965; repr. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Kregel Publications, 1984), 95.
  3. Alfred Edersheim, The Temple: Its Ministry and Services as They Were at the Time of Jesus Christ (repr. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1986), 47.
  4. Jos. Wars 5.5.3.
  5. Joachim Jeremias, Jerusalem in the Time of Jesus, trans. F. H. and C. H. Cave (German ed., 1962; Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1969), 117–118.
  6. Ibid. 117.
  7. Ibid.
  8. Jay P. Green, Sr., The Interlinear Bible: Hebrew/English, 3 vols. (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Book House, 1983), 2.814.
  9. Edersheim, Temple, 2, 45.
  10. Roland H. Bainton, Here I Stand: A Life of Martin Luther (1950; repr. New York and Toronto: The New American Library, Inc., n.d.), 296–298.
  11. W. E. Vine, An Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words, reprinted in An Expository Dictionary of Biblical Words, by W. E. Vine, Merrill F. Unger, and William White, Jr. (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1984), 937; Marvin Vincent, Word Studies in the New Testament, 4 vols., 2d ed. (n.p.: [c. 1888]; repr., McLean, Va.: MacDonald Publishing Co., n.d.), 1.463.
  12. William F. Arndt and F. Wilbur Gingrich, eds., A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1957), 63.
  13. Vine, 1004–1005, 1150.
  14. J. Edwin Orr, The Flaming Tongue, 2d ed. (Chicago: Moody Press, 1975).
  15. Vine, 961; Arndt and Gingrich, 92.
  16. Vine, 1005, 1149–1150.
  17. Ed Rickard, Daniel Explained, 3rd ed. (n.p.: The Moorings Press, 2017), 21–22.
  18. D. S. Russell, The Jews from Alexander to Herod, vol. 5 of The New Clarendon Bible: Old Testament (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1967), 60.
  19. Green, 1:52; Benjamin Davidson, The Analytical Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon, 2d ed. (London: Samuel Bagster & Sons, 1850; repr., Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan Publishing House, n.d.), 244.

Further Reading


This lesson appears in Ed Rickard's In Perils Abounding: Commentary on Acts 1-14. For further information, click here.