Release from Persecution

Acts 9:31-32

Saul's conversion ended the persecution that scattered believers throughout the region. Suddenly the pressure upon them to hide was removed, and they could freely do the work of the church. The result is that many grew stronger in their Christian faith and practice.

Now they walked only in the fear of God instead of walking also in the fear of man. Now also they especially enjoyed the encouragement and counsel of the indwelling Holy Spirit. These powerful motivators working in combination—fear of God serving as a negative incentive, the Spirit's encouragement as a positive incentive—roused believers to pursue the Great Commission with new zeal, and they won many to Christ. The churches multiplied throughout Judea, Galilee, and Samaria.

The leading apostles understood that it was their responsibility to help all the churches. Just before His ascension, the Lord told Peter to feed His sheep. He wanted Peter to make sure that the whole church of God received adequate spiritual nourishment. Thus, after Philip's mission to Samaria, Peter and John went there not only to give them the Holy Spirit, but also to disciple them in sound doctrine. Some time later, Peter took a tour of all the churches, coming at last to Lydda along the Mediterranean coast.


Acts 9:33-35

At Lydda, Peter found Aeneas, a man with a severe affliction. For eight years he had been bed-ridden with a paralysis of the legs. Whether he was already a believer, we do not know. But Peter took compassion on him and declared that the Lord would make him whole.

To perform a miracle always requires faith. On this occasion, Peter asked the man to show faith by making the effort to rise. As soon as he started to move, the palsy vanished, and he rose without difficulty. God not only cured him, but also took away the weakness of his legs after years of disuse.

News of the miracle spread rapidly throughout Lydda and the neighboring region, and the people marveled. This was the first notable miracle done in their midst. They had not seen the many miracles that Christ and His apostles had done in Jerusalem and Galilee. Aeneas was not someone mentioned in accounts of God's healing work in other places, but someone they knew. From their own observation they had no doubt that his affliction was severe and incurable. The miracle therefore had an electrifying effect. The writer reports that all unbelievers in Lydda and Saron accepted the gospel. Conversions must have numbered in the thousands.


Acts 9:36-43

While Peter was staying in Lydda, a godly woman in the adjoining city of Joppa died. This woman was greatly beloved by the church because of her good deeds. Like many people in Palestine, she bore two names, one Aramaic and one Greek. Both the Aramaic (Tabitha) and the Greek (Dorcas) signify a doe. The writer calls our attention to her names because they must give us a true picture of the woman. She must have been gentle and graceful like a deer.

Getting Practical

Scripture upholds the deer as a model for all women (Prov. 5:19). Notice which animals Scripture does not give as models: the magpie, the hippopotamus, the vixen (fox), the snake, the cuckoo, the gorilla, the sloth, etc.

Two brethren in the church at Joppa hurried to Peter and pleaded with him to come quickly. It was the Jewish custom to bury a body on the very day of death, before corruption could set in. But if Dorcas was already dead, what did her friends expect Peter to do? They must have had faith enough to believe that Peter could bring Dorcas back to life. No doubt they had heard about all the great works that Christ performed. Besides healing the sick, He raised three from the dead. These were the son of the widow of Nain (Luke 7:11-16), the daughter of Jairus (Luke 8:49-55), and Lazarus, brother of Mary and Martha (John 11:1-44). Jesus told His apostles that they too would do wonderful works, even greater than He had done (John 14:12). Therefore, the believers in Joppa believed that Peter could raise Dorcas, and Peter hurried to her bedside, confident that He could perform the miracle.

Getting Practical

The believers in Joppa did not call for Peter until after Dorcas was dead. When the messengers arrived, he might have shrugged his shoulders and said, "It's too late now." Although he had seen Jesus raise the dead to life, he had never done it himself. No one except Jesus had done it since the time of Elijah and Elisha. Yet the same Peter that Jesus had once rebuked for lack of faith, when he tried to walk on water but sank under the waves (Matt. 14:31), was now so mighty in faith that he confidently hurried off to perform the hardest kind of miracle. Under Jesus' teaching, he had learned that humanly impossible feats become possible as a result of faith, and the faith required is small like a mustard seed (Matt. 17:20). Have we learned the same lesson? Although Jesus promised that by faith we could move mountains, we feel mighty pleased with ourselves if by faith we manage to move a few spadefuls.

When Peter arrived in Joppa, he found all the widows weeping over Dorcas. To prove her death was a great loss, they showed Peter the clothing she had made for them. He then put the widows out of the room and kneeled beside the body. After praying and satisfying himself that it was God's will to raise this woman to life, Peter turned and said, "Tabitha, arise." Immediately she opened her eyes and sat up.

Years earlier, when Jesus raised Jairus's daughter, He commanded that she be given food immediately. No doubt Dorcas's body also lacked food. So, perceiving her weakness, Peter gave her his hand and helped her rise all the way to her feet. He then called in the believers waiting outside and presented Dorcas alive. You can imagine their reaction. Their mourning must have instantly turned into rejoicing and praising God.

The believers did not keep her restoration a secret. They eagerly spread the news, and soon the whole city knew that a great miracle had been done. The result of this dramatic display of divine power was that many believed.

Pondering a Question

The privilege of living a second time has been granted to very few saints. Why did God raise Dorcas from the dead?

Dorcas was a worthy woman, but other saints have been just as worthy. The answer must be that God wished to confirm in a dramatic way Peter's right to lead the church. Moreover, He wanted everyone to see that Peter and the other leaders of the church were doing the work of God.

Cornelius's Vision

Acts 10:1-8

Not far from Joppa was another coastal city, Caesarea. There lived Cornelius, a centurion in the Roman army. A centurion was the commander of about one hundred soldiers.

Cornelius was a gentile (not a Jew), and yet Scripture describes him as a devout man, faithful in good works and in a life of prayer. How did it happen that a gentile with a background in the heathen religion of Rome came to worship the true God? Cornelius was not alone. In his day, the Jewish religion attracted many followers. In synagogues throughout the Roman world, the congregation was a mixture of Jews and gentiles, called God-fearers. Although most of these gentiles did not go through all the rituals necessary to be considered actual Jews, they separated themselves from paganism and kept the moral law of God. Later, whenever Paul went to a new city, he preached first to the Jews and God-fearers in the synagogue. From those who believed he formed the nucleus of a new church.

Cornelius was a God-fearer so outstanding in his piety that God chose him to be the first gentile convert to Christianity. An angel appeared to him one day while he was praying. His natural reaction was to be afraid. But the angel calmed his fears by assuring him that God was pleased with all his prayers and good deeds. The angel implied that God was now ready to bless him, but to obtain the blessing, he had to follow instructions. First, he had to send men to Joppa and fetch Simon Peter, who was staying with Simon the tanner. Then when Peter came, Cornelius had to obey whatever Peter told him.

Immediately, Cornelius called three trusted servants, two from his household and one from the army. The soldier was a devout gentile, and perhaps the others were as well. After they all reported to their master, he sent them off to find Peter.

Peter's Vision

Acts 10:9-16

While Cornelius's men were walking to Joppa, Peter was having a quiet day at Simon's house. Toward noon he went to the housetop to pray. In an ancient Jewish house, the roof was much like the porch in a modern house. It was a good place to get away from others and enjoy the breezes. After spending some time with the Lord, Peter became hungry and called for food. While he sat waiting for the servants to prepare it, he fell into a "trance"—that is, God took control of his mind while he was awake.

Peter saw a strange vision. A large sheet appeared in the sky and descended before his eyes. It looked as though the sheet was suspended from cords tied to its four corners. Riding on the sheet was a whole zoo of animals. Among them were birds, mammals, and "creeping things"—a reference to reptiles and insects. When this strange cargo stopped before Peter, he heard a voice, saying, "Rise, Peter; kill and eat."

Peter had no doubt that the animals were real, and such a command to a man waiting for his dinner was entirely reasonable. But Peter saw that all the animals were unclean. The law of Moses allowed the nation of Israel to eat meat, but only from certain animals. Many animals were labeled unfit for consumption. These included pigs, rabbits, camels, anything with paws like a cat or bear, birds of prey, snakes, insects (except locusts, beetles, and grasshoppers), and a host of others.

As a good Jew who had always kept the law, Peter refused to obey, even though he recognized the voice as the Lord's. He protested, "Not so, Lord: for I have never eaten any thing that is common or unclean." The Lord rebuked him, saying, "What God hath cleansed, that call not thou common." Again the voice commanded him to eat, again he refused, and again the voice rebuked him. The same dialogue occurred yet a third time before the sheet rose up and disappeared into heaven.

Pondering a Question

What was the meaning of the vision?

Afterward, Peter considered the vision, but failed to understand it right away. Its meaning became clear only after he received the summons from Cornelius. The vision expressed God's desire to break down a barrier that was hindering Jewish Christians from reaching the gentile world.

This barrier was the Jewish attitude toward gentiles. A good Jew thought gentiles were as disgusting as unclean food. He went out of his way to avoid them. He never entered one of their houses. When he returned from the market, he washed himself to remove any uncleanness that he might have contracted by accidentally touching a gentile. With such an attitude, Jewish Christians found it hard to fulfill the Great Commission, commanding them to share the gospel with the whole world. Many could not imagine that God really wanted them to bring gentiles into the church. To overcome Jewish prejudice against other races, God gave Peter a vision showing that the time had come to stop viewing gentiles as unclean.

Delving Deeper

In Peter's vision, God expressed Himself symbolically, using animals to represent people, because He was simultaneously canceling restrictions against both. He was declaring that gentiles should not be treated as unclean, and also He was nullifying the dietary laws in the Old Testament. Putting these laws aside was necessary to enable the church to reach gentiles. An evangelist or missionary cannot be fussy about the food he eats. If he wishes to show love for the people he is seeking to win for Christ, he must be willing to eat with them and accept their food without qualms. If the customary food in some cultures is not the healthiest, eating it is a small sacrifice for the sake of winning souls.

God could terminate the dietary laws because they were provisional, not absolute—appropriate as a public health measure under certain circumstances but unrelated to any moral necessity. There is nothing inherently wrong with eating pork, for example. To eat it is not necessarily incompatible with love, which is the true grounds of all righteousness.

As Peter pondered the vision, the messengers from Cornelius reached Simon's gate. There they inquired whether a man named Simon Peter was inside. Peter himself did not hear this talk, but the Spirit alerted him to the arrival of these men. He told Peter to go down and meet them and do whatever they wanted, and He assured Peter that God had sent them.

Going to Caesarea

Acts 10:17-33

When Peter came to the men at the gate, he asked their purpose. The messengers identified themselves as messengers from Cornelius, a Roman centurion, but they quickly made it clear that Cornelius was no ordinary gentile. He was a God-fearer highly respected by the Jews. To explain why they had come, they said that an angel had commanded their master to seek out Peter and hear his message. Peter raised no objection, but invited the men to stay with him overnight. Here was the first sign of Peter's change of heart toward gentiles. On the next day, Peter accompanied the messengers back to Caesarea. Several believers from Joppa came along to observe.

At Cornelius's house, Peter found that Cornelius had assembled a large company, including many of his relatives and close friends.

Getting Practical

The story of Cornelius makes it clear that he did not view his faith as a strictly private matter. He endeavored to persuade his family and friends and acquaintances to follow God also. He was a good leader not only as a man of war, but also as a spiritual guide. For example, he accepted his responsibility to be the spiritual head of his home.

Cornelius himself met Peter at the door and threw himself at his feet, intending to worship him. Perhaps Cornelius thought that Peter might be another angel, or even a divine being. But Peter immediately corrected the error. Insisting that he was only a man, Peter helped Cornelius to his feet.

Peter went further into the house and found the large gathering of people. Imagine how awkward Peter felt when, for the first time in his life, he entered the home of a gentile. Feeling that his remarkable departure from Jewish custom required an explanation, he said that God sent him a vision showing that it was wrong to consider any man unclean. In essence, he was admitting that he had formerly harbored a wrong distaste for gentiles. It was appropriate that he should preface the gospel with confession of his own sin. He was setting an example of repentance, which the gospel would also require of them.

Peter asked why Cornelius had sent for him. Cornelius replied by reviewing the words of the angel. The answer to Peter's question was that the angel commanded Cornelius to summon Peter. Cornelius then asked Peter to share whatever message God had given him.

Peter's Message

Acts 10:34-43

Peter began by marveling at God's perfect justice. The Jews held themselves to be superior to other peoples, but God does not accept a man just because he is a Jew. Nor does He reject a man just because he is a gentile. As Peter said, "God is no respecter of persons."

Peter then used surprising language to describe how a man gains acceptance with God. He said that the requirements are to fear God and work righteousness.

Pondering a Question

Did Peter mean that we are saved by our works?

No. Peter was explaining why God singled out Cornelius for the privilege of hearing the gospel. By his devotion and good works Cornelius showed that he wanted to be right with God. His good works in themselves did not save him. Rather, they showed that he wanted to be saved.

Yet although Cornelius and perhaps other gentiles listening to Peter had won a measure of acceptance with God, they were lacking a personal relationship with Jesus Christ. To be saved, they needed to put their faith in Jesus. Therefore, Peter started his sermon by demonstrating that Jesus deserved their faith.

The facts about Jesus' life and death were already well known to Peter's audience, as they were to everyone in Palestine. Peter said of Jesus' message, "That word, I say, ye know." Yet Peter stated some of these facts anyway. As he summarized the life and ministry of Jesus, he emphasized that Jesus was not just a famous man whose ministry was the talk of the whole country. He was the Christ promised by the prophets. More than that, He was the Lord of all.

Then Peter stressed the strange contrast between Jesus' life and death. His life was devoted to doing good. Through the power of God's Spirit, He cast out demons from those under the power of Satan. Yet what was the end of this good man? He was taken by the authorities and hung on a cross. Peter refers to the cross as a tree because to be hung from a tree was the most disgraceful death that the Jews could imagine. Paul, paraphrasing the law of Moses, said, "Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree" (Gal. 3:13).

But the injustice in Jesus' death did not stand. God overturned it by raising up Jesus on the third day after His burial. Jesus then showed Himself to His disciples and appointed them to be witnesses everywhere of His resurrection. Peter himself had no doubt that he saw the risen Christ. What he saw was no ghost, for they ate and drank together.

Briefly, Peter spoke of God's direction for his own life. The risen Christ charged Peter and the other apostles to go about preaching. Their message—the message that Cornelius and his loved ones wanted to hear—was simple:

  1. God will not overlook sin. If a sinner fails to obtain God's forgiveness, he will someday stand in judgment and receive the just penalty. The Judge of all men will be Jesus.
  2. Jesus fulfilled all the prophecies of the Old Testament. Therefore, He must be the Savior from sin that God promised to send into the world.
  3. The one way of salvation is to believe in Jesus. Whoever believes in Him will receive remission (forgiveness) of sin and gain everlasting life.

Descent of the Spirit

Acts 10:44-48

While Peter was still speaking, the Holy Spirit descended upon his hearers. The proof of the Spirit's coming was that the gentiles began to speak in tongues. These tongues were again actual human languages, for the Jewish observers from the church in Joppa could pick out enough familiar words to understand that the speakers were praising God. The observers were amazed. They never expected God to give the Spirit to unclean gentiles as well as to Jews.

Peter's mind was no longer clouded with Jewish pride. He realized that if God baptized the gentiles with the Spirit, he could not refuse to baptize them with water. Without delay, they were baptized in the name of the Lord. Afterward, in response to their pleas for further teaching, Peter remained several more days.

Cornelius and his loved ones were the first gentile converts to Christianity. At the first moment of believing in Christ, the Holy Spirit came to indwell them. He did not delay His coming until they especially prayed for Him, or until they went through some ritual. Likewise today, the coming of the Spirit is simultaneous with salvation.

Getting Practical

The prejudice that kept Jews from witnessing to gentiles was obviously foolish. But do we have any similar prejudices? Do we exclude anyone from the gospel because he triggers our dislike? The prejudice common in churches today is of two kinds.

  1. We may fail to reach people beneath our level in society. We are clean; they are dirty. We are well dressed; they are ragged. We live in nice houses; they live in shacks. But James warns against disdain for the poor (James 2:1-4).
  2. We may draw back from foreigners because the gap in culture and language seems too hard to bridge. But to deny anyone the truth because he has a strange name and speaks broken English is a direct violation of the Great Commission, which says that the gospel is for the whole world (Matt. 28:18-20).