The Big Bang


Large-scale order in the universe is supposedly the result of the Big Bang, but the ylem was a vast soup of particles and energy at an incredibly high temperature. It was essentially chaotic. When it blew apart, the result would have been even more chaotic. The explosion could never have produced the beautifully structured universe that we see now. Matter is not distributed randomly; it is gathered mainly in stars, and these stars are clustered in galaxies, each of which has a distinctive geometric shape. Not even the galaxies are scattered at random. It has been learned that the universe is built like a sink full of soap bubbles. The galaxies are crowded together in great spherical walls surrounding vast empty spaces.

Modern theorists try to account for structure by imagining that the ylem conformed to certain restrictions—that it was lumpy, but not too lumpy, for example. But this tactic merely transfers the problem of design from the present to the beginning. Instead of having to explain why the universe we see is highly organized, we must explain why, at its very inception, it met all sorts of special conditions tending to organization.


Multiple Universes


One way that secular cosmologists try to evade the problem of design is to imagine that our universe is only one of countless universes in existence. These have supposedly come into being through some blind process that sets physical constants and characteristics in a willy-nilly fashion. As a result, most universes are unworkable monstrosities that quickly expire. But just through random variation, a universe like ours occasionally appears whose properties allow it to survive and even give birth to life. In other words, our ordered universe is a random outcome which accidentally differs from a myriad other outcomes that are more disordered.

The idea of multiple universes must still, however, reckon with the problem of design. The design characteristics of our universe are so perfect and precise that to obtain such a result by building many universes with characteristics set at random would be essentially impossible. To get it right even once would require more tries than we could calculate.

Yet suppose we imagine that the source of universes is a tireless generator with unlimited time to operate. Maybe someday this generator would make a universe like ours. But besides attaching a minute probability to this outcome, we have further strong objections to such a fanciful theory of origins.

Besides the difficulty in conceptualizing a generator, the idea of multiple universes raises another difficulty. Either they originate in the same generator, or they arise independently, from generators unrelated to each other. But if a cosmologist concedes that our universe came from a generator without other offspring, he loses his leverage against design, for whatever that generator was, it led unerringly to an outcome marked by great beauty of interlocking regularities. Could chance operating upon nothing be the father of such a child?

But if a cosmologist insists that multiple universes come from the same generator, he can no longer treat them as different universes. He cannot regard them as lacking any common point. To begin with, they must have been in the same system of space-time coordinates as the generator. Where are they now? It is hard to imagine that they could have strayed into wholly nonintersecting realms. Whether they lie nestled in the matrix of our universe or float afar off, there is no reason to suppose that they are sealed against detection. So, until we find them, there is no reason to believe they exist.

Against this conclusion someone might argue that he can in fact imagine universes perfectly isolated from each other, with no space-time bridge between. Yet such a notion unravels. It is meaningless to speak of a real universe that never exists when ours exists. As far as we are concerned, it does not exist. Yet to suppose that it exists while ours exists immediately creates a bridge enabling the two universes to be mapped on a common space-time coordinate system, leading to the result that they are not really different universes but estranged members of the same universe. Again we say, there is no reason to suppose that the other universe is sealed against detection. Until we find it, there is no reason to believe it exists.

One current theory that promotes the idea of multiple universes claims that the nothingness we came from has no time or space. This assertion is self-evident. Indeed, it is hard to assign any time or place to nothing. Yet the originator of the theory seems to contradict himself. He said, "Our universe is simply one of those things which happen from time to time." On what time scale? Evidently, since it embraces the origin of every universe, on the time scale of the parent nothingness. The statement is not just a slip of the tongue. It is impossible to look at it any other way. If the same nothingness produces multiple universes, we can view them as different only by thinking of them as appearing at different times or places on the same space-time coordinate system.

When we understand that the Creator of our universe could have owned no less sophistication than necessary for producing the intricate design displayed everywhere around us, and no less power than necessary for implementing and sustaining that design forever, we come to the conclusion that the worlds were made by God.